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ARMINIANISM

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ARMINIANISM

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A Review of Dr. Woods' Letters to Dr. Taylor, on the Permission of Sin.  Together with Remarks on Dr. Bellamy's Treatise, on the Same Subject.  First Published in the Quarterly Christian Spectator, for September 1830., FITCH, ELIAZAR THOMPSON
1 FITCH, ELIAZAR THOMPSON A Review of Dr. Woods' Letters to Dr. Taylor, on the Permission of Sin. Together with Remarks on Dr. Bellamy's Treatise, on the Same Subject. First Published in the Quarterly Christian Spectator, for September 1830.
New Haven Theology: Fitch's Review of Dr. Woods' Letters to Dr. Taylor, New Haven, 1830 Pamphlet, side-stitched with printed tan wrapper Good Octavo, 15x23.5cm New Haven, CT 
FITCH, ELEAZAR THOMPSON. A Review of Dr. Woods' Letters to Dr. Taylor, on the Permission of Sin. Together with Remarks on Dr. Bellamy's Treatise, on the Same Subject. First Published in the Quarterly Christian Spectator, for September 1830. New-Haven: Baldwin and Treadway, printers. 1830. Octavo in 4's, 15 x 23.5cm. $60.00 Eleazar Thompson Fitch (1791-1871) educator, lecturer, author. Fitch graduated from Yale in 1810; entered Andover Theol Seminary in 1812 where, "after completing the regular course, he remained, pursing advanced studies, giving assistance in instruction, and preaching, until his election, in 1817, to succeed President Dwight in the office of professor of divinity at Yale... He delivered to successive classes a series of sermons in systematic theology, and some of his doctrinal views thus presented becoming publicly controverted, he was compelled to defend them publicly."--Appletons' Cyclop´┐Żdia of American Biography, II:470. In this pamphlet Fitch defends Nathaniel W. Taylor, who was his colleague at Yale. Regarding the authorship of this pamphlet, 1 OCLC entry (7 libraries) attributes it to Eleazar T. Fitch. 2 other OCLC entries (25 libraries) attribute it to N.W. Taylor himself based on Sidney Earl Mead: Nathaniel William Taylor, 1786-1858, Chicago, 1942, p.248 and also Franklin B. Dexter's Biographical Sketches of the Graduates of Yale College, New Haven, 1912, 6:161. However, the pamphlet refers to "Dr. Taylor" in the third person, whereas other pamphlets of Taylor in this controversy use the first person. I think it likely that Fitch was the author and not Taylor. American Imprints #30-1386 also lists it under Fitch. "The Remarks on Dr. Bellamy's Treatise, on the Permission of Sin, are attributed to Luther Hart, editor of the Quarterly Christian Spectator, and they are in response to Joseph Bellamy's The Wisdom of God in the Permission of Sin, as published in Bellamy's Works, v. 2, 1811"--OCLC. The pamphlet itself states in a footnote on the first page of the Review of Dr. Woods' Letters, "These remarks were originally subjoined to a review of Dr. Bellamy's Treatise on the permission of sin, which was passing through the press, at the time when Dr. Woods' Letter to Dr. Taylor were received. As the subject of these Letters is more immediately interesting to the public at the present time, we have here placed our remarks upon them first, and have subjoined the review of Dr. Bellamy, because it is frequently alluded to in our examination of Dr. Woods' Letters."--p.3. Pamphlet, side-stitched with printed tan wrapper, along spine strip wrapper is tattered and about half worn away, bottom & fore-edges untrimmed, light to medium foxing. Collation: 1-64, 71. Pagination: (1) title, (1) blank, [3]-39 Review of Dr. Woods' Letters, [40]-50 Remarks on Dr. Bellamy's Treatise, on the Permission of Sin." (17721) 
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An Examination of a Review of Dr. Taylor's Sermon on Human Depravity, and Mr. Harvey's Strictures on that Sermon, HARVEY, JOSEPH
2 HARVEY, JOSEPH An Examination of a Review of Dr. Taylor's Sermon on Human Depravity, and Mr. Harvey's Strictures on that Sermon
1829 Good Pamphlet Octavo Hartford, CT 
Harvey's Examination of a Review of Dr. Taylor's Sermon on Human Depravity, Hartford, 1829

[HARVEY, JOSEPH]. An Examination of a Review of Dr. Taylor's Sermon on Human Depravity, and Mr. Harvey's Strictures on that Sermon. Hartford: Printed by Goodwin & Co., 1829. Octavo. $45.00

Joseph Harvey (1787-1873) Congregational minister. This pamphlet is attributed to Harvey in Franklin B. Dexter's Biographical Sketches of the Graduates of Yale College... 1912, v.6, p.201. Dexter also states that the review of Dr. Taylor's sermon, first published in the Quarterly Christian Spectator for June 1829 and later in a pamphlet, was written jointly by Chauncey A. Goodrich and Noah Porter. The reviewers Goodrich & Porter, based there review on Harvey's previously published "Strictures." So in this anonymously published examination of the Review, Harvey is in large measure defending & clarifying his own words. The controversy was about N.W. Taylor's theory of sin, moral agency & divine government. He summarizes his objections to Taylor's theology: "The peculiar feature, and what many will consider, the radical error of this theory, is the assumption, that all moral depravity consists in a free preference of the world to God. That such a preference is a consequence and an evidence of depravity, none will deny. But to say, that this preference is the root and source of the evil, is placing the subject on new ground, and seriously affecting all the great doctrines of the Gospel, which stand related to human depravity."--p.44.

Disbound pamphlet side-stitched with new linen thread, light foxing. Collation: 1-74. Pagination: (1) title, (1) blank, [3]-53pp, (3)pp blank.
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Letters on the Present State and Probable Results of Theological Speculations in Connecticut, HARVEY, JOSEPH.
3 HARVEY, JOSEPH. Letters on the Present State and Probable Results of Theological Speculations in Connecticut
1832 Good Pamphlet Octavo, 12.8 x 21.3cm Hartford, CT 
Joseph Harvey writing Against Nathaniel W. Taylor, 1832

HARVEY, JOSEPH. Letters on the Present State and Probable Results of Theological Speculations in Connecticut. By an Edwardean. [No place, no publisher; Hartford?] 1832. Octavo, 12.8 x 21.3cm.$45.00

Joseph Harvey (1787-1873) Congregational minister. In this pamphlet Harvey responds to either real or literary questions of a friend concerning the theological opinions of Nathaniel W. Taylor. Harvey stated that "Dr. Taylor's creed exhibits some of the peculiarities of Pelagianism: (e.g.) Peleagius denied original sin, or native depravity. So does Taylor."--p.25. Harvey also argues that the Theological Seminary had known years of harmony and revivals of religion. However, "this harmony and prosperity continued to increase until Dr. Taylor came into the field. And since that time the seeds of alienation and division have been industriously sown, and have produced a rapid growth and an early harvest."--p.27.

Disbound pamphlet, side-stitched, light to medium foxing. Pagination: (1) title, (1) blank, [3]-44pp. American Imprints 32-13392, with 44pp and only MWA. #32-12841 with 40pp.
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Appello Evangelium for the True Doctrine of the Divine Predestination,, PLAIFERE, JOHN.
4 PLAIFERE, JOHN. Appello Evangelium for the True Doctrine of the Divine Predestination,
1651 First Edition Bound contemporary calf boards, rebacked Good book Small octavo, 10 x 15cm. London, Printed by J. G. for John Clark, and are to be sold at his shop under S. Peters Church in Cornhill 
Plaifere on Predestination, a "Middle Knowledge" approach, London, 1651, First Edition


PLAIFERE, JOHN. Appello Evangelium for the True Doctrine of the Divine Predestination, Concorded with the Orthodox Doctrine of Gods Free-Grace, and Mans Free-Will. By John Plaifere, B.D. Sometime Fellow of Sidney-Suffex Col. in Cambridge and late Rector of Debden in Suffolk. ad Amicum. Amice, Evangelium appellasti? Ad Avangeliu ibis. Bern. in Cant. Ser. 65. Responsio. Nullus reprehensor formidandus est amatori Veritatis Aug.de Trin. in Pro?m. Hereunto is added Dr. Chr. Potter his owne Vindication in a Latter to Mr. V. touching the same Points. London, Printed by J. G. for John Clark, and are to be sold at his shop under S. Peters Church in Cornhill, 1651. Small octavo, 10 x 15cm.

Bound contemporary calf boards with simple double fillets in blind, sometime rebacked in leather in same simple style, original leather on corners chipped and scuffed with boards showing at corners and in places along edges, vertical crease lines in spine leather, red page edges with author and first word of title written on fore-edge, later (probably 19th century) endpapers but with later material added along hinges, small removed name plate on front paste-down endpaper, pages with light to medium foxing, scattered damp stains.

Bookseller's tag on top outside corner of front paste-down endpaper: "J.(?) Leslie, Theological Bookseller, 52 Gt. Queen Srt Lincolns Inn Fields, London." 19th century owner's name on front free endpaper: "Stephen Eliott Jr. 1840."

Collation: A4, B-Y8. Pagination: (1) title, (1) blank, (2) contents, (4) bookes...printed for John Clark, 1-[435], (1) errata. Page 435 is misnumbered 419. Dr Potter his own vindication of himselfe, has a separate dated title page on leaf V8 recto. First Edition. It was issued again in 1652 and 1653. Wing (CD Rom, 1966) P2419. Online English Short Title Catalogue citation number: R32288 with 14 copies in UK libraries and 6 U.S. libraries including Brown Univ.; Folger Shakespeare; Newberry Libr.; Union Theol. Sem.; UCLA; Univ. Ill. OCLC adds Cornell Univ; General Theol. Sem.; Newberry Libr; New Orleans Bapt. Theol. Sem.; Calvin Col. & Theol. Sem.; Bethel Theol. Sem. Libr.; Columbia Univ.; Univ. Toronto--Fisher Libr.

"This brings us to the name of John Plaifere. Little is actually known about this seventeenth-century figure. The title page of his work reveals most of what is known, "Sometime Fellow of Sidney-Sussex Col. in Cambridge, and late Rector of Debden in Suffolk." In 1719 a work was published anonymously and entitled, A Collection of Tracts Concerning Predestination and Providence, and the other Points Depending on Them (1719). The volume consisted of four essays, one of which was Plaifere's An Appeal to the Gospel, for the True Doctrin [sic] of Divine Predestination, Concorded with the Orthodox Doctrin of God's Free-Grace, and Man's Free-Will. This work originally appeared in 1651, bound with Barnaby Potter's A Letter of the Learned Chr. Potter, D.D. Vindicating his Sentiments in these Controversies."

"In Plaifere's work many references were made to middle knowledge, demonstrating a thorough knowledge of the issue, both historically and philosophically. In it, he put forward five opinions about predestination. After showing the weaknesses of the first four he then suggested a fifth, which he said, is that of Arminius, which he interpreted accords to his own principles, in his Theses de natura Dei, "...and the [Jesuit] Molina ...and may therefore be less acceptable to some for the sake of the Teachers and Defenders of it; but a lover of Truth will not be prejudiced against it, because it hath besides these, the unanimous suffrage of the Fathers, Greek and Latin, before St. Augustine, if their Doctrine concerning Prescience be rightly examined, and explained..." "Plaifere referred to both Molina and Arminius and argued that predestination takes place on the basis of middle knowledge. God considered all things that were possible. From the realm of the possible God knew that if grace were offered to certain individuals they would reject it, while others would accept it. In explaining middle knowledge, or scientia media, what is significant is that Plaifere quoted both Arminius and Molina as proponents of middle knowledge."--Barry E. Bryant: Molina, Arminus, Plaifere, Goad, and Wesley On Human Free-will, Divine Omniscience, and Middle Knowledge, From the Wesleyan Theological Journal; http://evangelicalarminians.org/node/304.

"Finding ammunition in the bugbear of Antinomianism, Arminian Anglicans set going a concerted offensive against the doctrine of predestination that lasted throughout the 1650s and into the Restoration years. In 1651 a manuscript by John Plaifere, originally written apparently for the author's own satisfaction, was published posthumously with the title Appeal to Gospel for True Doctrine of Divine Predestination. Plaifere had been a Suffolk rector until his death in 1632, and to claim him for Arminianism had the benefit of adding further precedent to the cause. In the text, Plaifere roundly declared the teaching of Arminius to be consonant with that of the ancient church fathers."--Dewey D. Wallace Jr.: Puritans and Predestination: Grace in English Protestant Theology, 1525-1695. UNC Press, 1982, p.122.
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5 SPICER, TOBIAS Vindication of the Character of the Apostle Paul.
1830 Bound marbled cloth Octavo Vergennes, VT 
SPICER, TOBIAS. Vindication of the Character of the Apostle Paul. By Tobias Spicer, Minister of the Gospel. Why yet am I also judged as a Sinner?--Rom. iii.7. For the law of the spirit of life in Christ Jesus, has made me free from the law of sin and death.--Rom. viii.2. Vergennes: [VT] Printed by Gamaliel Small. 1830. Octavo.

Bound marbled cloth with blank paper title label on front cover, new endpapers, tattered title page remounted, Pagination: (1) title, (1) blank, (2) preface, [5]-24pp. Amer. Imprints #3565.

Bound with: SPICER, TOBIAS. An Attempt to Explain Some Part of the Seventh Chapter of St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans. By Tobias Spicer, Minister of the Gospel. By the law is the knowledge of sin.--St. Paul. Vergennes: [VT] Printed by Gamaliel Small. 1830.

Medium to heavy foxing, large water stains throughout. Pagination: (1) title, (1) advertisement, [3]-24pp. Amer. Imprints #3564.

Tobias Spicer (1788-1862) a distinguished minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was admitted into the New York Conference at Pittsfield, Mass., May 20, 1810. "Mr. Spicer was a deep thinker and a hard student. He was very industrious, having preached during his ministry 8550 sermons; and during his seventy-second year he preached 211 times. 
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6 TAPPAN Letter to the Rev. Noah Porter, D.D. Pastor of the Cong. Church, Farmi
19TH-AM-NY-NY-HAVEN 
[TAPPAN, HENRY PHILIP]. Letter to the Rev. Noah Porter, D.D. Pastor of the Cong. Church, Farmington, Con. on the Statements of the Christian Spectator. In Reference to Dr. Bellamy's Doctrines. From No. XV of Views in Theology, for Nov. 1834. New-York: John P. Haven, 148 Nassau-Street, American Tract Society's House. 1834. Octavo. Disbound pamphlet, side-stitched, light foxing. Collation: 1-64, 71. Pagination: (1) title, (1) blank, [3]-40pp. Amer. Imprints 34-27108 (CTSoP; GDecCT; ICN; MH-AH; OO.). OCLC locates only NY Hist. Soc.; Yale U.; & U. Mich. Clements Lib. Henry Philip Tappan (1805-1881) clergyman, philosopher, first president of the University of Michigan. "He began his publication in 1839 with his Review of Edwards's 'Inquiry into the Freedom of the Will.' This was followed in 1840 by his Doctrine of the Will Determined by an Appeal to Consciousness and in 1841 by his Doctrine of the Will Applied to Moral Agency and Responsibility. Though he shows the influence of Victor Cousin, the famous eclectic French philosopher of the time, yet there are touches of genuine originality in his handling of the problems..."--Dict. of Amer. Biog., XVIII:302. We offer his pamphlet on Bellamy doctrine of sin, published while Tappan was professor of moral and intellectual philosophy in the Univ. of the City of NY (later NY Univ.). 
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A Further Reply to Dr. Tyler, on the Doctrines of Propagated Depravity, &c., TAYLOR, NATHANIEL W.
7 TAYLOR, NATHANIEL W. A Further Reply to Dr. Tyler, on the Doctrines of Propagated Depravity, &c.
1833 Good Pamphlet Octavo, 15.2 x 24.5cm Boston 
Taylor's Further Reply to Dr. Tyler on the Doctrines of Propagated Depravity, &c., Boston, 1833

TAYLOR, NATHANIEL W. A Further Reply to Dr. Tyler, on the Doctrines of Propagated Depravity, &c. By N.W. Taylor. [Boston, 1833] Octavo, 15.2 x 24.5cm. $75.00

Nathaniel W. Taylor (1786-1858) theologian and educator. Taylor entered Yale in 1800, later studied under Timothy Dwight and was ordained minister of the First Church of Christ, New Haven, 1812. In 1822 upon the formation of the Yale Divinity School, he became Dwight Professor of Didactic Theology, a position he held to within a few weeks of his death. "In order to guard against the idea that man is saved by any merit of his own, Calvinism seemed to exclude any real freedom of choice. Edwards in his treatise on the will in grappling with this difficulty had declared that man has a natural ability to repent but is inhibited by his moral disinclinations; his only freedom is liberty to obey the strongest motive... [Taylor] Being of a bold and original mind, endowed with speculative talents of a high order...he broke through the narrow confines of the accepted theology. Moreover, he was a revival preacher deeply concerned with relating religious truth to the facts of human consciousness. His point of divergence was the reality of the freedom of choice. He denied that our consciousness of freedom is an illusion and asserted that the will is not another name for the strongest motive, but is a power to chose between motives. Man, he affirmed, is not born totally depraved, but with certain sinful inclinations, and his 'sin consists in sinning.' To induce men to turn from their evil ways and choose the highest good, appeal must be made to man's natural desire for happiness, which Taylor unfortunately called 'self love.' This self-love will finally become, in a regenerated mind, identical with an unselfish love for God. Such an interpretation of the freedom of the will and the modifications of Calvinism attendant upon it aroused a storm of controversy and divided the churches of New England into 'Taylorites and Tylerites' the adherents of Taylor and of his principal opponent, Bennet Tyler. The debate , passing beyond the borders of New England, became the chief theological reason for the disruption of the Presbyterian Church in 1838."--Charles A. Dinsmore in Dictionary of American Biography, XVIII:338-339. Taylor's "idea of the certainty but not the necessity of man's sin was not outside orthodoxy, and was essential, because his audience no longer knew the Reformation theology, and did not accept the idea of man's 'total depravity.' Taylor exerted a strong influence upon the revivalists, especially Charles G. Finney, whose theological system at Oberlin College, Ohio, 'bore clear marks of Taylorism.'"--Nelson R. Burr: Critical Bibliography of Religion in American, II:994-995. This pamphlet continues the controversy on depravity & regeneration. Taylor had replied to Tyler in his Remarks on propagated depravity and sin as the necessary means of the greatest good, New Haven, 1832. In this pamphlet he continues his thoughts on the doctrines of propagated depravity: "The next subject on which Dr. Tyler questions the consistency and orthodoxy of my views, is the doctrine of Depravity by nature."
Pamphlet in original printed self-title wrapper, lacking rear wrap, fore-edge & bottom edge untrimmed, untrimmed page edges tattered a bit, light foxing. Pagination: [title printed on wrapper, pagination starts with first page of text] [27]-60pp. American Imprints #33-21445. OCLC locates only 2 libraries: Columbia Univ. Libr. & Yale Univ. Libr.
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A Letter from Rev. Nathaniel W. Taylor, on the Subject of His Late Discussion with Rev. Dr. Tyler.  First published in the Quarterly Christian Spectator. For September, 1833., TAYLOR, NATHANIEL W.
8 TAYLOR, NATHANIEL W. A Letter from Rev. Nathaniel W. Taylor, on the Subject of His Late Discussion with Rev. Dr. Tyler. First published in the Quarterly Christian Spectator. For September, 1833.
1833 Pamphlet, side-stitched Good Pamphlet Octavo, 15.2 x 24.2cm New Haven 
Nathaniel W. Taylor vs. Dr. Tyler on Native Depravity & Regeneration, New Haven, 1833

TAYLOR, NATHANIEL W. A Letter from Rev. Nathaniel W. Taylor, on the Subject of His Late Discussion with Rev. Dr. Tyler. First published in the Quarterly Christian Spectator. For September, 1833. New=Haven: Published by Stephen Cooke. Printed by Baldwin & Ellis. [1833] Octavo, 15.2 x 24.2cm. $50.00

Nathaniel W. Taylor (1786-1858) theologian and educator. Taylor entered Yale in 1800, later studied under Timothy Dwight and was ordained minister of the First Church of Christ, New Haven, 1812. In 1822 upon the formation of the Yale Divinity School, he became Dwight Professor of Didactic Theology, a position he held to within a few weeks of his death. "In order to guard against the idea that man is saved by any merit of his own, Calvinism seemed to exclude any real freedom of choice. Edwards in his treatise on the will in grappling with this difficulty had declared that man has a natural ability to repent but is inhibited by his moral disinclinations; his only freedom is liberty to obey the strongest motive... [Taylor] Being of a bold and original mind, endowed with speculative talents of a high order...he broke through the narrow confines of the accepted theology. Moreover, he was a revival preacher deeply concerned with relating religious truth to the facts of human consciousness. His point of divergence was the reality of the freedom of choice. He denied that our consciousness of freedom is an illusion and asserted that the will is not another name for the strongest motive, but is a power to chose between motives. Man, he affirmed, is not born totally depraved, but with certain sinful inclinations, and his 'sin consists in sinning.' To induce men to turn from their evil ways and choose the highest good, appeal must be made to man's natural desire for happiness, which Taylor unfortunately called 'self love.' This self-love will finally become, in a regenerated mind, identical with an unselfish love for God. Such an interpretation of the freedom of the will and the modifications of Calvinism attendant upon it aroused a storm of controversy and divided the churches of New England into 'Taylorites and Tylerites' the adherents of Taylor and of his principal opponent, Bennet Tyler. The debate , passing beyond the borders of New England, became the chief theological reason for the disruption of the Presbyterian Church in 1838."--Charles A. Dinsmore in Dictionary of American Biography, XVIII:338-339. Taylor's "idea of the certainty but not the necessity of man's sin was not outside orthodoxy, and was essential, because his audience no longer knew the Reformation theology, and did not accept the idea of man's 'total depravity.' Taylor exerted a strong influence upon the revivalists, especially Charles G. Finney, whose theological system at Oberlin College, Ohio, 'bore clear marks of Taylorism.'"--Nelson R. Burr: Critical Bibliography of Religion in American, II:994-995. Henry Martyn Dexter: "Collection toward a Bibliography of Congregationalism" #5292. This pamphlet is in reply & reference to Dexter #5193 & #5226, Bennet Tyler's Remarks on Rev. Dr. Taylor's Letter to Dr. Hawes, and Correspondence between Rev. N.W. Taylor, D.D. and Rev. J. Hawes, D.D. The controversy turned around native depravity and regeneration.

Pamphlet, side-stitched, fore-edge and bottom edge not trimmed, untrimmed page edges tattered a bit, title page soiled and worn almost through in several spots, small damp stains in outer margins, light to medium foxing. American Imprints #33-21446.
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An Inquiry Into the Nature of Sin, as Exhibited in Dr. Dwight's Theology.  A Letter to a Friend, by Clericus, TAYLOR, NATHANIEL W.
9 TAYLOR, NATHANIEL W. An Inquiry Into the Nature of Sin, as Exhibited in Dr. Dwight's Theology. A Letter to a Friend, by Clericus
1829 Good Pamphlet Octavo New Haven, CT 
Nathaniel W. Taylor's An Inquiry Into the Nature of Sin, as Exhibited in Dr. Dwight's Theology. New Haven, 1829

TAYLOR, NATHANIEL W. An Inquiry Into the Nature of Sin, as Exhibited in Dr. Dwight's Theology. A Letter to a Friend, by Clericus. New Haven: Printed by Hezekiah Howe. 1829. Octavo.

Pamphlet, disbound and side-stitched, very light foxing. The number "3." written at top of title. Collation: 1-54, 62. Pagination: (1) title, (1) blank, [3]-21 Letter &c, [22]-43 Postscript, (1) blank. The Postscript discusses Mr. Harvey's Review of N.W. Taylor's sermon, Concio ad clerum. Amer. Imprints #38198.

Nathaniel W. Taylor (1786-1858) Congregational theologian and educator. In 1822 he was appointed Dwight Professor of Didactic Theology in Yale Divinity School. "Being of a bold and original mind, endowed with speculative talents of a high order... he broke through the narrow confines of the accepted theology. Moreover, he was a revival preacher deeply concerned with relating religious truth to the facts of human consciousness. His point of divergence was the reality of freedom of choice... Man, he affirmed, is not born totally depraved, but with certain sinful inclinations, and his 'sin consists in sinning.'"--Dict. Amer. Biog., XVIII:338.
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Dr. Taylor's Reply to Dr. Tyler's Examination, TAYLOR, NATHANIEL W.
10 TAYLOR, NATHANIEL W. Dr. Taylor's Reply to Dr. Tyler's Examination
1832 Pamphlet in original printed paper wrapper with t Good Octavo, 15.8 x 24.8cm. Boston 
N.W. Taylor's Reply to Dr. Tyler in the Hawes/Taylor/Tyler Controversy re Native Depravity & Regeneration, Boston, 1832

TAYLOR, NATHANIEL W. Dr. Taylor's Reply to Dr. Tyler's Examination. Boston: Printed by Peirce and Parker, No. 9, Cornhill. 1832. Octavo, 15.8 x 24.8cm. $55.00

Nathaniel W. Taylor (1786-1858) theologian and educator. Taylor entered Yale in 1800, later studied under Timothy Dwight and was ordained minister of the First Church of Christ, New Haven, 1812. In 1822 upon the formation of the Yale Divinity School, he became Dwight Professor of Didactic Theology, a position he held to within a few weeks of his death. "In order to guard against the idea that man is saved by any merit of his own, Calvinism seemed to exclude any real freedom of choice. Edwards in his treatise on the will in grappling with this difficulty had declared that man has a natural ability to repent but is inhibited by his moral disinclinations; his only freedom is liberty to obey the strongest motive... [Taylor] Being of a bold and original mind, endowed with speculative talents of a high order...he broke through the narrow confines of the accepted theology. Moreover, he was a revival preacher deeply concerned with relating religious truth to the facts of human consciousness. His point of divergence was the reality of the freedom of choice. He denied that our consciousness of freedom is an illusion and asserted that the will is not another name for the strongest motive, but is a power to chose between motives. Man, he affirmed, is not born totally depraved, but with certain sinful inclinations, and his 'sin consists in sinning.' To induce men to turn from their evil ways and choose the highest good, appeal must be made to man's natural desire for happiness, which Taylor unfortunately called 'self love.' This self-love will finally become, in a regenerated mind, identical with an unselfish love for God. Such an interpretation of the freedom of the will and the modifications of Calvinism attendant upon it aroused a storm of controversy and divided the churches of New England into 'Taylorites and Tylerites' the adherents of Taylor and of his principal opponent, Bennet Tyler. The debate , passing beyond the borders of New England, became the chief theological reason for the disruption of the Presbyterian Church in 1838."--Charles A. Dinsmore in Dictionary of American Biography, XVIII:338-339. Taylor's "idea of the certainty but not the necessity of man's sin was not outside orthodoxy, and was essential, because his audience no longer knew the Reformation theology, and did not accept the idea of man's 'total depravity.' Taylor exerted a strong influence upon the revivalists, especially Charles G. Finney, whose theological system at Oberlin College, Ohio, 'bore clear marks of Taylorism.'"--Nelson R. Burr: Critical Bibliography of Religion in American, II:994-995. Henry Martyn Dexter: "Collections Toward a Bibliography of Congregationalism" #5227. This controversy, centered around sin/native depravity/regeneration, was started when Taylor reviewed Joel Hawes paper, then Tyler replied to Taylor's review, to which Taylor replies with our pamphlet. Taylor is defending the "orthodoxy" of his positions.

Pamphlet in original printed paper wrapper with title printed on front wrap, side stitched, fore-edge & bottom edge not trimmed, untrimmed page edges tattered a bit, wrapper soiled a bit, large damp stain in upper right hand corner of pages, light foxing. Pagination: [title printed on wrapper, pagination starts with first page of text] [1]-24pp. Small errata slip pasted to bottom of p.24. American Imprints#32-14935.
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A Letter to the Editor of the Spirit of the Pilgrims.  To which are Added Remarks on a Recent Letter of Dr. Taylor in the Christian Spectator, TYLER, BENNET
11 TYLER, BENNET A Letter to the Editor of the Spirit of the Pilgrims. To which are Added Remarks on a Recent Letter of Dr. Taylor in the Christian Spectator
1833 Disbound pamphlet, side-stitched Good Pamphlet Octavo Portland, Maine 
New England Theology, Bennet Tyler's reply to Nathaniel W. Taylor, Portland, Maine, 1833

TYLER, BENNET. A Letter to the Editor of the Spirit of the Pilgrims. To which are Added Remarks on a Recent Letter of Dr. Taylor in the Christian Spectator. By Bennet Tyler, D.D. Pastor of the Second Congregational Church in Portland, Me. Portland: Printed by Merrill and Byram. 1833. Octavo. $50.00

Bennet Tyler (1783-1858) American Congregational pastor, theologian, educator. President of Dartmouth College for 6 years, first President and professor of Christian theology of the Theological Institute of Connecticut, leader of the `Old School' Calvinists. "In this same year [1828] a sermon preached by Dr. Nathaniel W. Taylor at the Yale Commencement let loose a flood of theological controversy among the New England churches, especially in Connecticut, between the 'Old School' Calvinists and the 'New Divinity' as promulgated from New Haven. Being an ardent conservative and one of the ablest interpreters of the old theology, Tyler was drawn into the debate and became a recognized leader of conservative orthodoxy. On Sept. 10, 1833, forty ministers met in East Windsor, Conn., and resolved to establish a theological seminary--if twenty thousand dollars could be raised--to counteract, as far as possible, the harmful effects of the 'New Divinity as taught in New Haven. The money was raised in a few weeks, the corner-stone of the Theological Institute of Connecticut, now the Hartford Theological Seminary, was laid May 13, 1834, and Tyler was inducted into office as president and professor of Christian theology on the same day. This position he held for twenty-three years, resigning on account of the infirmities of age July 16, 1857... Not an original or speculative thinker, Tyler dwelt contentedly in the Calvinistic system as modified by Jonathan Edwards and tempered by Timothy Dwight"--Dict. Amer. Biog. XIX:85. In this pamphlet Tyler continues the now 5 year controversy with Nathaniel W. Taylor, re Taylor misrepresentations of Tyler's theological positions relative to sin and other doctrines.

Disbound pamphlet, side-stitched, mostly light foxing but with title and last page much heavier foxing. Pagination: (1) title, (1) blank, [3]-40pp. Amer. Imprints #21589.
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Remarks on Rev. Dr. Taylor's Letter to Dr. Hawes., TYLER, BENNET
12 TYLER, BENNET Remarks on Rev. Dr. Taylor's Letter to Dr. Hawes.
Bennet Tyler's Objections of Dr. Taylor's Letter to Dr. Hawes, Boston, 1832 Pamphlet bound in original printed wrapper, side-s wrapper soiled, fore-edge & bottom edge not trimmed and a bit tattered, large damp stain in upper outer corner of all pages, light to medium foxing. pamphlet . Octavo, 15.5 x 24.6cm Boston: Printed by Peirce & Parker, No. 9 Cornhill. 
TYLER, BENNET. Remarks on Rev. Dr. Taylor's Letter to Dr. Hawes. By Bennet Tyler, D.D. Boston: Printed by Peirce & Parker, No. 9 Cornhill. 1832. Octavo, 15.5 x 24.6cm. $55.00 Bennet Tyler (1783-1858) American Congregational pastor, theologian, educator. President of Dartmouth College for 6 years, first President and professor of Christian theology of the Theological Institute of Connecticut, leader of the `Old School' Calvinists. "In this same year [1828] a sermon preached by Dr. Nathaniel W. Taylor at the Yale Commencement let loose a flood of theological controversy among the New England churches, especially in Connecticut, between the 'Old School' Calvinists and the 'New Divinity' as promulgated from New Haven. Being an ardent conservative and one of the ablest interpreters of the old theology, Tyler was drawn into the debate and became a recognized leader of conservative orthodoxy. On Sept. 10, 1833, forty ministers met in East Windsor, Conn., and resolved to establish a theological seminary--if twenty thousand dollars could be raised--to counteract, as far as possible, the harmful effects of the 'New Divinity as taught in New Haven. The money was raised in a few weeks, the corner-stone of the Theological Institute of Connecticut, now the Hartford Theological Seminary, was laid May 13, 1834, and Tyler was inducted into office as president and professor of Christian theology on the same day. This position he held for twenty-three years, resigning on account of the infirmities of age July 16, 1857... Not an original or speculative thinker, Tyler dwelt contentedly in the Calvinistic system as modified by Jonathan Edwards and tempered by Timothy Dwight"--Dict. Amer. Biog. XIX:85. Tyler begins this pamphlet with "that his [Taylor's] theories do involve principles subversive of some of the most prominent and important articles of his creed, I shall endeavor to show in the following remarks." [p.3] He then proceeds under 4 points: "I. The Doctrine of Decrees. II. The Doctrine of Original Sin. III. The Doctrine of Regeneration. IV. The Doctrine of Election." Tyler closes the pamphlet with: The reader will perceive that each of the topics brought into view in the preceding remarks, might be made the subject of extended discussion; but my object has been to present a brief general view of what I conceive to be the tendency of Dr. Taylor's speculations. I have felt it the most important to do this, on account of the attempts which have been made to convince the public that the points on which Dr. Taylor differs from his brethren are of trifling consequence; as the relate chiefly not to doctrines, but to philosophy, of religion. But if his philosophical theories, as I have attempted to show, do tend to sap the foundations of some of the fundamental doctrines of the Gospel, they are not to be regarded as harmless; nor ought the Christian community to slumber, while such strenuous efforts are making to give them currency in the world." [p.12]

Pamphlet bound in original printed wrapper, side-stitched, wrapper soiled, fore-edge & bottom edge not trimmed and a bit tattered, large damp stain in upper outer corner of all pages, light to medium foxing. American Imprints #32-15066. OCLC locates 10 libraries. (17733) 
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Vindication of the Strictures on the Review of Dr. Spring's Disserta, TYLER, BENNET
13 TYLER, BENNET Vindication of the Strictures on the Review of Dr. Spring's Disserta
1830 Good Pamphlet Octavo Portland, Maine 
Bennet Tyler's Vindication of His Strictures on Nathanial W. Taylor's Review of Dr. Spring's Dissertation on the Means of Regeneration. Portland, Maine, 1830

TYLER, BENNET. A Vindication of the Strictures on the Review of Dr. Spring's Dissertation on the Means of Regeneration, in the Christian Spectator for 1829, in Reply to the Reviewer and Evangelus Pacificus. By Bennet Tyler, D.D. Pastor of the Second Congregational Church, Portland, Maine. Portland: Shirley and Hyde, Exchange-Street. 1830. Octavo. $35.00

Bennet Tyler (1783-1858) American Congregational pastor, theologian, educator. President of Dartmouth College for 6 years, first President and professor of Christian theology of the Theological Institute of Connecticut, leader of the `Old School' Calvinists. "In this same year [1828] a sermon preached by Dr. Nathaniel W. Taylor at the Yale Commencement let loose a flood of theological controversy among the New England churches, especially in Connecticut, between the 'Old School' Calvinists and the 'New Divinity' as promulgated from New Haven. Being an ardent conservative and one of the ablest interpreters of the old theology, Tyler was drawn into the debate and became a recognized leader of conservative orthodoxy. On Sept. 10, 1833, forty ministers met in East Windsor, Conn., and resolved to establish a theological seminary--if twenty thousand dollars could be raised--to counteract, as far as possible, the harmful effects of the 'New Divinity' as taught in New Haven. The money was raised in a few weeks, the corner-stone of the Theological Institute of Connecticut, now the Hartford Theological Seminary, was laid May 13, 1834, and Tyler was inducted into office as president and professor of Christian theology on the same day. This position he held for twenty-three years, resigning on account of the infirmities of age July 16, 1857... Not an original or speculative thinker, Tyler dwelt contentedly in the Calvinistic system as modified by Jonathan Edwards and tempered by Timothy Dwight"--Dict. Amer. Biog. XIX:85.

Gardiner Spring wrote the original pamphlet, Dissertation on the Means of Regeneration. Nathanial W. Taylor reviewed Spring's work in Essays on the Means of Regeneration as did Winslow Hubbard (under the pseud. Evangelus Pacificus) in Evangelical View of the Nature and Means of Regeneration. Tyler then replied with Strictures on the Review of Dr. Spring's Dissertation on the Means of Regeneration. Nathanial W. Taylor replied with Review of Dr. Tyler's Strictures upon an Article in the Christian Spectator. Tyler then replied to Taylor with our pamphlet. "The objections which I have urged against the scheme of the Reviewer, are not to my mind satisfactorily obviated. It still appears to me to involve principles of dangerous tendency--principles tending to sap the foundation of the doctrines of grace:--although I do not believe that he will ever adopt as his own belief, the consequences to which his principles lead, yet I do seriously fear, that he is preparing the way for the gradual influx of error upon the American churches, disastrous to the interests of evangelical religion"--p.v.

Disbound pamphlet, newly side-stitched with linen thread, small 2cm hole in title page, top corner torn from pp.21-22, light to medium foxing, verso of final leaf tanning quite a bit. Collation: 1-84. Pagination: (1) title, (1) blank, [iii]-vi introduction, [7]-63, (1) blank. American Imprints 30-3788.
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